IB Maths AA vs Maths AI: What’s The Difference?

10 min read
IB Math courses
Great tutors to
boost IB grades
Our certified IB Teachers
and Examiners
can help fast

The IB Diploma Programme makes Mathematics a compulsory subject for all students. However, not all high-schoolers have the same relationship with numbers. Some enjoy learning abstract concepts and solving equations, while others would like to see how Maths applies to the world around them. Some students dislike Maths altogether, but there is not much we can do about that.  

Fortunately, the IB programme offers a solution: two distinct Maths courses – AA (Analysis and Approaches) and AI (Applications and Interpretations). But how do you decide which path is right for you? Our IB Maths AA vs Maths AI comparison will guide you through both options.

What is IB Maths Applications and Interpretations (AI)?

Applications and Interpretations is a course for those who wonder how Maths functions in the real world. In other words, it is about developing practical mathematical skills. That’s why the curriculum, alongside calculus and purely mathematical concepts, delves deep into topics such as statistics and probability.

Students who choose AI learn how to use mathematical models to solve problems in various contexts, analyse data, draw meaningful conclusions, as well as clearly communicate their findings. In addition, they explore ways to enhance their understanding and efficiency through the use of graphic calculators and software.

If you like the idea of using Maths to solve real-world challenges, then Applications and Interpretations is for you. It’s also a great option if you’re considering a career in business, economics, social sciences, as well as any other field that requires data analysis and decision-making based on quantitative information. Ultimately, the skills you can acquire in this course can be valuable for any future path you choose.

What is IB Maths Analysis and Approaches (AA)?

Do you want to know more about the theoretical side of Maths? Or maybe you enjoy solving problems and proving hypotheses? Then IB Maths Analysis and Approaches (AA) may be the choice for you.

The course explores various branches of Mathematics, from functions to geometry and trigonometry. In fact, it covers the same broad five topics as Applications and Interpretations, including statistics and probability. However, instead of focusing on real-world applications (although they are still part of the programme), it helps develop a deep conceptual understanding of mathematical principles.

One of the key strengths of Analysis and Approaches is the introduction to problem-solving strategies. As an AA student, you’ll learn to approach problems systematically, breaking them down into smaller components, and applying appropriate mathematical tools to find solutions. In the end, the course helps acquire an analytical mindset, which can come in handy no matter which career path you have in mind.

IB Maths AA vs IB Maths AI: What is the Difference?

While both IB Maths courses explore the world of Mathematics, they approach it from different angles: theoretical and practical. This difference significantly impacts what, how, and in which way AA and AI Maths students study their respective subjects.

Purpose and Focus

As we have already said, the Analysis and Approaches course requires you to understand mathematical principles and theories. In particular, it focuses on the “whys” behind concepts. Along with that, it emphasises abstract reasoning, formal proofs, as well the ability to think critically and logically.

In contrast, Applications and Interpretations shift the focus from theoretical Mathematics to practical skills. It teaches skills such as data analysis, modeling, problem-solving, etc. that can find application in various fields, from engineering to economics.

IB Maths AA and AI Course Structure

No matter which IB Maths course you choose, you will learn the same five core topics:

  1. Number and Algebra. It explores core algebraic concepts including functions, equations, inequalities, and matrices.
  2. Functions. This topic deals with different types of functions, their properties, and applications in various contexts.
  3. Geometry and Trigonometry. It covers geometric concepts such as shapes, transformations, as well as trigonometric relationships.
  4. Statistics and Probability. The material includes data analysis, probability distributions, statistical hypothesis testing, and applications in various fields.
  5. Calculus. It introduces concepts of differentiation, integration, and their applications in solving problems.

While the topics are the same, the way they are taught and the time allocated to each one differ. The AA and AI syllabi offer approximately 60 hours of shared content, but apart from that both courses go their own ways.

AA’s way is theoretical with an emphasis on algebraic and geometry concepts as well as calculus. AI, in contrast, dedicates fewer hours to theory. Instead, it delves deeper into Functions as well as Statistics and Probability.

IB Maths AA vs Maths AI

When we compare IB Maths AA vs Maths AI assessments, we’ll notice some differences, too. Both courses have either two or three Papers as part of the External Assessment – this depends on whether you study IB Maths SL or HL – as well as the Internal Assessment. However, calculators are allowed with AI papers while you will have to count on your own abilities during AA exams.

Maths Proficiency Level

IB Maths AA assumes a stronger foundation in Mathematics and requires a higher level of comfort with abstract concepts. Students are challenged with more complex problems and advanced mathematical techniques. As a result, AA learners tend to end up with a higher level of Maths proficiency.

On the other hand, IB Maths AI is more accessible to students with varying levels of aptitude, although it still demands a solid Maths background. It gives more time to explain how Maths is useful in solving real-life problems at the expense of theoretical training.

Applications of IB Maths AA and AI

AA and AI are both excellent options for future studies or careers in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics). Still, Analyses and Approaches are a preferred option to prepare for the disciplines requiring advanced mathematical skills. Its rigorous training in analytical thinking, problem-solving, and abstract reasoning builds a strong foundation for success in these areas.

IB Maths AA Applications

Besides STEM, AA will be beneficial for students interested in:

  • Engineering – the skills gained in the AA class will come in handy for analysing complex engineering problems, designing structures, and developing innovative solutions.
  • Physical Sciences (Physics, Chemistry) – the course provides the mathematical tools needed to understand and model physical phenomena. These and other sciences heavily rely on mathematical modelling and analysis.
  • Computer Science – a strong grasp of calculus and algebra is a must for computer science. Thanks to profound Maths knowledge, AA students are better prepared to understand algorithms, develop complex software applications, as well as solve problems in areas such as cryptography and artificial intelligence.

IB Maths AI Applications

The goal of Application and Interpretation is to give students practical tools to excel across various disciplines. If you’d like to build a career in one of the following fields, AI may be the best choice:

  • Social Sciences (Psychology, Sociology, Politics, etc.) – AA provides statistical tools needed to analyse social science data. They help researchers to understand human behaviour, social trends, and relationships within their data sets.
  • Natural Sciences (Biology, etc.) – modelling and data analysis skills developed in AI will be useful to interpret experimental data, create models of ecological processes, or predict population changes. Besides, they can help make informed decisions in various research areas.
  • Design – AI’s focus on data analysis and interpretation can be surprisingly relevant to design fields. Students can use these skills in multiple ways, such as to analyse user data, understand design preferences, or design solutions based on real-world data.

IB Maths AA vs Maths AI: Which one to Take?

The decision between IB Maths AA and AI is going to impact your high-school experience for the next two years. Since both courses offer unique perspectives on Mathematics, they cater to different strengths and interests. Before you make your call, you need to give an honest answer to questions like “Do I like working with numbers?”, “Does my dream job rely on Maths?”, or “Do I need Maths to enter a desired university?”.

If you have a natural interest in Mathematics and enjoy exploring theoretical concepts, the IB Maths AA course might be the ideal path for you. It will also suit you if you have strong analytical skills or you wish to improve them.

But AA Maths is not only about theory, it is also about solving challenging problems. The ability to analyse a problem and find the best solution is highly sought-after in fields like engineering or computer science. So if you plan to connect your life with numbers, Analysis and Approaches is a reasonable choice.

At the same time, if you prefer a more hands-on approach to Mathematics and are curious to know how numbers can affect our lives, then the Applications and Interpretations course is the way to go. Alongside problem-solving, the course explores data analysis, statistical analyses, modelling, and other aspects of practical knowledge.

In such a way, Maths AI can become an excellent preparation for university studies and professional endeavours across various fields. Whether you’d like to start a business in the future or wish to develop scientific solutions, this Maths course will teach you how to translate data into actionable insights.

Which University Courses are Possible with Each Choice?

The IB Maths option you choose can also affect, to some extent, access to desired university courses. Generally, Mathematics-heavy courses such as pure Maths, Engineering, Physics, and so on are more likely to prefer AA. This is because the theoretical foundation and advanced mathematical concepts covered in AA align better with the demands of these fields.

On the other hand, for many other courses, such as Business, Economics, Social Sciences, or Natural Sciences, both IB Maths AA and AI are equally good options. However, university requirements vary, and some higher education institutions may have specific preferences for certain programmes.

For example, Cambridge, King’s College London, and Edinburgh University specifically require High Level in Analysis and Approaches to be eligible for their Mathematics programmes. On the other hand, Oxford University does not discriminate between AA and AI for their Mathematics-related courses.

AA and AI Mathematics

It’s important to note that your achievements in IB Maths can play an even greater role than the specific course you took. Many prestigious universities consider candidates only with 7s and 6s in Higher Level Maths for their STEM programmes, regardless of whether these grades are in AA or AI.

IB Maths Requirements to Enter Universities Around the World

Are you hoping to enrol in a university in another country? Then you should learn more about their admission requirements. Pay attention to the fact that these requirements vary not only based on a specific course but also target country.

United Kingdom

Higher Level AA and AI may give you a ticket to Maths and STEM programmes in UK universities. Sometimes, even SL AA suffices. The requirements are similar for Economics and Business. In all other cases, there are no specific entry requirements for IB Maths.

United States

American HEIs accept all IB Maths courses for entry. However, your prospects are higher with HL Maths since it demonstrates a stronger foundation in mathematical concepts.


In Australia, you can apply for Mathematics, Engineering, and Physical sciences with a good grade in AA HL or AI HL. If you’ve studied SL Maths, you have higher chances with AA. This is because most universities don’t consider AI at Standard Level

The same applies to university programmes in Life sciences, medicine, and psychology, as well as Economics and businesses. If you’re looking for education in Arts and humanities, you can take any IB Maths option at every level.


The majority of Canadian universities will require IB Maths at HL for their STEM programmes. You should perhaps consider taking Analysis and Approaches since they prefer this Maths option. When it comes to Life sciences, medicine, and psychology, as well as Economics and businesses, Maths HL as well as AA SL (given you have a good grade), will make you eligible for entry.

France and Spain

Good news for those who’d like to enter a university in these countries. Most HEIs accept both AA and AI, regardless of the level, even if you wish to study STEM.


Want to study Maths, Engineering, or Physics in Germany? Then you need to choose HL Maths in school, preferably Analysis and Approaches. The situation is the same for Economics and Business courses. However, for Life Sciences, Medicine, Psychology, as well as Arts and Humanities, you have a chance for enrolment regardless of IB Maths course and level.


Netherlandic universities strictly require Higher Level AA for STEM courses. With other programmes, you still have higher chances if you choose the AA route, either SL or HL, although some universities will also accept HL AI.

Hong Kong

HEIs in Hong Kong require HL Maths for STEM courses. Some universities even consider applicants with AA at SL. For non-STEM programmers, both AA and AI are suitable regardless of the level.


IB Maths AA and AI at Higher Level may get you entry to STEM Life Sciences programmes in Japan. Outside these, your level and Maths option don’t play a big role. Still, at some universities, your chances with AI SL might be lower.


Most Swiss universities give preference to HL Maths no matter which academic path you’d like to pursue. However, while HL is a prerequisite for Mathematics and other STEM programmes, other pathways may accept applicants with SL AA and AI.  

Please keep in mind that university admission requirements may change over time. That’s why you should always keep yourself up to date. Reaching out to the admissions office or checking the university’s website can provide the most accurate information.


IB Maths offers two distinct paths: AA for the theory enthusiasts and AI for the practical problem-solvers. You need to choose wisely since your whole experience in the IB Diploma Programme will depend on it. A mismatch can lead to unnecessary stress and potentially lower exam scores.

So how do you make the best decision between IB Maths AA vs Maths AI? Consider your strong suits, interests, and goals for the future. Do you want to better understand mathematical concepts? Or are you more excited about using Maths in the context of specific tasks? Reflecting on these questions can help you make the right choice.

Are you still unsure? TutorsPlus is here to help! We offer a wealth of information about IB Maths so that you know what to expect in high school. And if you need personalised guidance and support, our experienced Maths tutors are here to assist you throughout your IB journey. Don’t hesitate to reach out at +41 022 731 8148 or info@tutorsplus.com and take the first step towards achieving your academic goals.

By Sara Lloyd

Sara has been an education consultant for TutorsPlus for 15 years, and is an expert on international IB education.  She is also a parent of two lively children.

Find a Tutor

Share This Article:

More articles from our expert tutors

Maths IB picture of a calculator

How to use your GDC calculator to get the best IB Maths score?

Careless mistakes and erroneous calculations can lead to dropped marks and lower Maths IB scores.  What if there was a way to save time in exams, simplify calculations and lower the chance of errors? There is…
University Application Student having done test-blind admissions process

Test-blind Admissions: The Uncertain Future of University Admissions Tests

In this article, I look at why universities are increasingly changing to test-blind admissions, and dropping standardized test requirements. I dig into why this has happened and most importantly the difference it makes for you and…
German IB B student reads book

IB German Ab Initio Guide

Students who’d like to learn German as part of their IB often wonder what German language course options are, and want a German Ab Initio guide to break it down. Moreover, they are curious about how…
Find a tutor today
30 seconds to let us know what you need

Find a Tutor Today